Ammonia is released to the atmosphere from livestock urine and excreta as well as from manufactured fertilisers such as ammonium nitrate and urea.  Ammonia in the atmosphere causes acidification of rain (acid rain) and can react with atmospheric sulphur dioxide to form fine particulates (PM10 and PM2.5) which are harmful to health.

The UK is committed to reducing its ammonia emissions and in 1999 signed up to the Gothenburg Protocol.

Livestock farmers can reduce ammonia losses through good practice, including diet formulation, housing, slurry storage and manure spreading techniques.

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